Justice for All

Presentation Tips: Perfect Ending

There are many tips and advices on how to make a good presentation. You can find these tips online, in various books and magazines, on TV or on radio. In this short article we want to present you how to make the ending part of the presentation more efficient and successful.

First advice is to avoid the questions slide. Nowadays almost everybody does that and there is nothing memorable about this approach. If possible, you should take questions throughout the presentation so that the question asked and the answer given is relevant to the presented text.  

Also, to be truly effective, take questions and then finish with a closing that is as powerful as the beginning of the presentation. For this you may use a quote that will stay with your audience members long after they leave the area. Second advice is to use some phrases or ideas that would move the audience to action. Use the last few minutes of the presentation to reinforce the call to action you seek, something like “We are One”, Begin the Journey”, “It’s never too late for a change”, etc.

Presentation can also end with a story. If the story you present is personal or illustrates how the content presented affects others it would be the best way to conclude. A relevant and interesting case study would also be a great example of ending a presentation. Creating empathy with your audience and tying the story back to points made throughout the presentation ensures your presentation will be successful.

Hope these tips were helpful to those involved in scientific, legal or economical activity.

History of Law: Assize of Clarendon

The Assize of Clarendon was an 1166 act released by Henry II of England that began the renovation of English law. With significant changes based on a model in which evidence, inspection, and inquiry was made by laymen, knights or ordinary freemen, under oath. This act greatly fostered the methods that would eventually be known in common law countries as trial by jury. The act takes its name from Clarendon Palace, Wiltshire, the royal hunting lodge at which it was promulgated.

In this important juridical document the most popular assize became the assize of novel disseisin, which in French Law meant something close to the “assize of recent dispossession”. Those who had been lately put out of their lands could recuperate the beneficial use of them by resort to this assize, which led to a then innovative method of trial. Twelve “of the more lawful men” of the locality were summoned by the king’s sheriff to regulate, upon their own knowledge, who was entitled to the property. These twelve free men were a model of a grand jury. They were called to report under oath any accusations of crime they were aware of in the community. The crimes to be investigated were specified in the Assize of Clarendon to be robbery, murder or theft or anyone who has harbored a robber, murderer, or thief. This innovative method of proceeding, the origin of the civil petit jury at common law, was aimed at the chaos introduced into property rights by crusade and civil war.

Based on this act many proceedings did much to transfer power out of the hands of local barons and into the hands of the royal court and its judges. In 1215, moreover, the Fourth Lateran Council forbade clergymen of the Church from participating in trial by ordeal. After this date, trials after accusation by the grand jury were conducted by juries as well.

The dispute over jurisdiction over the one-sixth of the population of England who were clergy was the chief complaint between the King and Becket. Disgruntled peers attempted to undo Henry’s reforms by the Magna Carta forced on King John, but by that time the reforms had progressed too far and their dominance over the system they had replaced was too apparent and as a result Henry II’s reforms laid the basis for the system of trials in common law.

The Pig War was a conflict in 1859 between American and British authorities over the boundary between the United States and British North America. The specific area in dispute was the San Juan Islands, which lie between Vancouver Island and the North American mainland. The Pig War, so called because it was triggered by the shooting of a pig, is also called the Pig Episode, the Pig and Potato War, the San Juan Boundary Dispute or the Northwestern Boundary Dispute. The pig was the only “casualty” of the war, making the conflict basically bloodless.

The oldest globe in the world has approximately 510 years. This globe has been engraved on the surface of ostrich eggs in Italy. The current owner bought it at a fair in London in 2012.

Famous Quotes on Law and Justice

Laws or ordinances unobserved, or partially attended to, had better never have been made.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, letter to James Madison, Mar. 31, 1787

Bad laws are the worst sort of tyranny.
EDMUND BURKE, speech at Bristol previous to the election of 1780

The law is the public conscience.

Reason is the life of the law, nay the common law is nothing else but reason.
SIR EDWARD COKE, Institutes: Commentary upon Littleton

The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread.

Every new time will give its law.
MAXIM GORKY, The New Lawyer’s Wit and Wisdom

Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through.
JONATHAN SWIFT, A Critical Essay upon the Faculties of the Mind

Laws grind the poor, and rich men rule the law.

Accursed be the city where the laws would stifle nature’s!
LORD BYRON, The Two Foscari

Laws made by common consent must not be trampled on by individuals.

No organic law can ever be framed with a provision specifically applicable to every question which may occur in practical administration. No foresight can anticipate nor any document of reasonable length contain express provisions for all possible questions.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN, First Inaugural Address, Mar. 4, 1861

Law is a bottomless pit.
JOHN ARBUTHNOT, The History of John Bull

The law was made for one thing alone, for the exploitation of those who don’t understand it.
BERTOLT BRECHT, The Threepenny Opera

Most Unusual Prisons in The World

Justizzentrum Leoben (Austria)

This is trully a 5-star prison made with Beautiful glass and stainless steel office building. It was designed by architect Joseph Hohensinn, completed in November 2004. Nowadays, with 205 inmates, the prison is fully booked.

Sark Prison (Guernsey)

Sark Prison is located on the Island of Sark in Guernsey.It was built in 1856 and is apparently the smallest in the world, as it can house only 2 prisoners.

ADX (Colorado)

This prison the Super-maximum security prison called United States Penitentiary Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) in Florence, Colorado, USA. Inmates are only allowed out of their cells for 9 hours a week and barely interact with anyone. ADX is a prison intended for the worst felons in the country.

Aranjuez Prison (Spain)

This is a jail, the only the one in the world with cell units for families. The idea is for kids to bond with their imprisoned parents while young enough to be oblivious to their surroundings. The prison has 36 cell units for families.

Bastoey Island low security prison (Norway)

This is the first first ecological prison in the world.  It uses low security prison uses solar panels for energy, produces most of its own food, recycles everything it can and tries to reduce its carbon footprint. The solar panels have cut the prison’s electricity needs by up to 70 percent and all the food served by inmates is organic.

Recently, the US Agents of the investigation department of the Ministry of National Security discovered an underground tunnel, which was built between the cities of Tijuana (Mexico) and San Diego (USA). This is the third tunnel, intended for drug smuggling between the two countries, which the U.S. and Mexican authorities have discovered since 2011. Newly built tunnel is equipped with electric rail system to transport drugs, and ventilation system. Inside the tunnel were found more than 8 tons of marijuana.

The Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk is a planned museum in Gdańsk, Poland which is devoted to World War II. The opening is scheduled for 1 September 2014.

Drunk Driving Penalties in Several Countries of the World

If the quantity exceeded 0.04 ppm for the first time, the driver will pay up to 12,500 dollars and lose license for three years. For relapse, a person can be sent to prison and criminalized.

Czech Republic
In the Czech Republic, as well as in some Eastern European countries, for example - Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, there is “zero tolerance to alcohol”, ie 0.0 ppm, and in the case of violations of the law the penalty is 200-470 Euros.

According to European system of traffic rules permitted alcohol level should not exceed 0.5 ppm. Such a rule is established in almost all the countries of Western Europe. For example in Germany, A  drunk driver, hitting first is paying 500 euros for the second time - 1000 euro, while the third violation may cost as much as 3000 Euros

In England one can use up to 0.8 ppm, it is almost 2 glasses of wine. But Great Briotain also impose Europe’s largest fines for driving drunkenness - 7200 Euros!

In America, drinkers can go to prison for a term of six months to one year, as well as being subjected to prolonged deprivation of a driver’s license. Allowable blood alcohol content - 0.8 ppm (for drivers over 21 years old). The driver first caught drunk (and not become a cause of the accident), get off with a fine of $ 300 and forfeiture of rights for six months.For the second violation, the penalty can be up to five thousand dollars, in the third - to 10 thousand dollars. If the drunk driver caused the fatal accident, he will receive 10 years in prison, but according to the laws of a state standards may be different.

International Bar Association (IBA)

The International Bar Association was founded in 1947 as a voluntary bar association of international legal practitioners, bar associations and law societies. The organization currently incorporates as members approximately 50,000 individual lawyers and 200 bar associations and law societies. IBA’s global headquarters are located in London, England, and it has regional offices in Washington, D.C., United States, Seoul, South Korea and Sao Paulo.

On 17 February 1947 representatives of 34 national bar associations gathered in New York to create this institution. In 1970, IBA membership was opened to individual lawyers. Members of the legal profession including attorneys, solicitors, barristers, advocates, members of the judiciary, in-house lawyers, government lawyers, academics and law students may comprise the membership of the IBA.

The IBA is divided into two divisions – the Legal Practice Division (LPD) and the Public and Professional Interest Division (PPID). Each Division houses different committees and meetings that are dedicated to specific practice areas and regular publications that focus on areas of interest in international legal practice are issued.

The PPID houses the Bar Issues Commission (BIC) and Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI). The BIC was established in 2004 and consists of representatives from bar associations and law societies around the world, while (IBAHRI) was established in 1995 under the honorary presidency of Nelson Mandela and its goals are to promote, protect and enforce human rights under a just rule of law.

IBA also has held Special Consultative status before the UN General Assembly and the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) since 1947.

The IBA plays an important role in issuing codes and guidance on international legal practice. And the organization issued Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration, adopted in 1999 and revised in 2010, a document which is commonly used by parties in international commercial arbitration.