Justice for All


justice
Most Unusual Prisons in The World

Justizzentrum Leoben (Austria)

This is trully a 5-star prison made with Beautiful glass and stainless steel office building. It was designed by architect Joseph Hohensinn, completed in November 2004. Nowadays, with 205 inmates, the prison is fully booked.

Sark Prison (Guernsey)

Sark Prison is located on the Island of Sark in Guernsey.It was built in 1856 and is apparently the smallest in the world, as it can house only 2 prisoners.

ADX (Colorado)

This prison the Super-maximum security prison called United States Penitentiary Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) in Florence, Colorado, USA. Inmates are only allowed out of their cells for 9 hours a week and barely interact with anyone. ADX is a prison intended for the worst felons in the country.

Aranjuez Prison (Spain)

This is a jail, the only the one in the world with cell units for families. The idea is for kids to bond with their imprisoned parents while young enough to be oblivious to their surroundings. The prison has 36 cell units for families.

Bastoey Island low security prison (Norway)

This is the first first ecological prison in the world.  It uses low security prison uses solar panels for energy, produces most of its own food, recycles everything it can and tries to reduce its carbon footprint. The solar panels have cut the prison’s electricity needs by up to 70 percent and all the food served by inmates is organic.

Recently, the US Agents of the investigation department of the Ministry of National Security discovered an underground tunnel, which was built between the cities of Tijuana (Mexico) and San Diego (USA). This is the third tunnel, intended for drug smuggling between the two countries, which the U.S. and Mexican authorities have discovered since 2011. Newly built tunnel is equipped with electric rail system to transport drugs, and ventilation system. Inside the tunnel were found more than 8 tons of marijuana.

The Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk is a planned museum in Gdańsk, Poland which is devoted to World War II. The opening is scheduled for 1 September 2014.

Drunk Driving Penalties in Several Countries of the World

Belarus
If the quantity exceeded 0.04 ppm for the first time, the driver will pay up to 12,500 dollars and lose license for three years. For relapse, a person can be sent to prison and criminalized.

Czech Republic
In the Czech Republic, as well as in some Eastern European countries, for example - Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, there is “zero tolerance to alcohol”, ie 0.0 ppm, and in the case of violations of the law the penalty is 200-470 Euros.

Germany
According to European system of traffic rules permitted alcohol level should not exceed 0.5 ppm. Such a rule is established in almost all the countries of Western Europe. For example in Germany, A  drunk driver, hitting first is paying 500 euros for the second time - 1000 euro, while the third violation may cost as much as 3000 Euros

England
In England one can use up to 0.8 ppm, it is almost 2 glasses of wine. But Great Briotain also impose Europe’s largest fines for driving drunkenness - 7200 Euros!


USA
In America, drinkers can go to prison for a term of six months to one year, as well as being subjected to prolonged deprivation of a driver’s license. Allowable blood alcohol content - 0.8 ppm (for drivers over 21 years old). The driver first caught drunk (and not become a cause of the accident), get off with a fine of $ 300 and forfeiture of rights for six months.For the second violation, the penalty can be up to five thousand dollars, in the third - to 10 thousand dollars. If the drunk driver caused the fatal accident, he will receive 10 years in prison, but according to the laws of a state standards may be different.

International Bar Association (IBA)

The International Bar Association was founded in 1947 as a voluntary bar association of international legal practitioners, bar associations and law societies. The organization currently incorporates as members approximately 50,000 individual lawyers and 200 bar associations and law societies. IBA’s global headquarters are located in London, England, and it has regional offices in Washington, D.C., United States, Seoul, South Korea and Sao Paulo.

On 17 February 1947 representatives of 34 national bar associations gathered in New York to create this institution. In 1970, IBA membership was opened to individual lawyers. Members of the legal profession including attorneys, solicitors, barristers, advocates, members of the judiciary, in-house lawyers, government lawyers, academics and law students may comprise the membership of the IBA.

The IBA is divided into two divisions – the Legal Practice Division (LPD) and the Public and Professional Interest Division (PPID). Each Division houses different committees and meetings that are dedicated to specific practice areas and regular publications that focus on areas of interest in international legal practice are issued.

The PPID houses the Bar Issues Commission (BIC) and Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI). The BIC was established in 2004 and consists of representatives from bar associations and law societies around the world, while (IBAHRI) was established in 1995 under the honorary presidency of Nelson Mandela and its goals are to promote, protect and enforce human rights under a just rule of law.

IBA also has held Special Consultative status before the UN General Assembly and the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) since 1947.

The IBA plays an important role in issuing codes and guidance on international legal practice. And the organization issued Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration, adopted in 1999 and revised in 2010, a document which is commonly used by parties in international commercial arbitration.

Impressive Abandoned Military Bases

Fort Ord, USA

image

Fort Ord is a former United States Army post on Monterey Bay of the Pacific Ocean coast in California, which closed in 1994. The fort was established in 1917 for World War I as a maneuver area and field artillery target range, and was considered one of the most attractive locations of any U.S. Army post, because of its proximity to the beach and California weather.

Saint Nazaire Submarine Base, France

image

The submarine base of Saint-Nazaire is a large fortified U-boat pen built by the Germans during the Second World War in Saint Nazaire. It is one of the five large submarine bases built by the Third Reich in Occupied France.  Between late 1943 and early 1944, a fortified lock was built to protect submarines during their transfer from the Loire river and the pens. The lock is 155 meter long, 25 meter wide, and 14 meter high and the roof features anti-aircraft armament.


Johnston Atoll, USA

image

The Johnston Atoll might belong to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service today, but before that, it was the Army’s playground for 70 years. It was covered in radioactive debris for a while thanks to test launch failures in 1962, and this is where they stored all the Agent Orange and mustard gas after the Vietnam War.


Flak Towers, Austria and Germany

image

lak towers were 8 complexes of large, above-ground, anti-aircraft gun blockhouse towers constructed in the cities of Berlin (3), Hamburg (2), and Vienna (3) from 1940 onwards. They were used by the Luftwaffe to defend against Allied air raids on these cities during World War II. They also served as air-raid shelters for tens of thousands of people and to coordinate air defense.


Zeljava Underground Airbase, Croatia

image

Started in 1948 and finished twenty years later, this underground base was one of the largest and most expensive military construction projects in Europe.  Due to the Yugoslav Wars in the early nineties, the area is still full of mines and bombs, so this place though it is abandoned still looks impressive.

Unusual Maps in World’s History

World Map according to Posidonius - about 150-130 BC

These maps of the 16th century made by the Portuguese and containing one of the first images of America with Brazil and Florida and Caribbean Islands.

The original vision of the world by Petro Sollo in 1520, when from Asia to the Indian Ocean ha drew a large “Dragon `s Tail”

1587 year map containing a hypothetical representation of Antarctica, a continent discovered later in 1820

These highly decorative maps of the world, containing hypothetical placement and size of Antarctica, as well as parts of North America missing, were issued in Amsterdam in 1689.

History of Law: Blutgericht

Blutgericht – translated from German: Blood Court or high justice in the Holy Roman Empire referred to the right of a Vogt (a reeve) to hold a criminal court inflicting bodily punishment, including the death penalty.
Not every Vogt held the blood court. Up to the 18th century, for example, the blood court of much of what is now the canton of Zürich lay with Kyburg, even in the territory ruled by the counts of Greifensee. The self-administration of the blood court was an significant factor of Imperial immediacy.


The Blutbanner “blood banner” or Blutfahne “blood flag” was a solid red flag. It was presented to feudal lords as a representation of their power of high jurisdiction  - Blutgerichtsbarkeit together with the heraldic banner of the fief. Some feudal houses adopted a red field symbolic of the blood banner into their coat of arms, the so-called Regalienfeld. The Talschaft (forest canton) of Schwyz used the blood banner as a war flag from ca. 1240, and was later incorporated into the flag of Schwyz and the flag of Switzerland.

Important Places we are not allowed to Visit

The Vatican Secret Archives

The Vatican Secret Archives, located in Vatican City, is the central depository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. The entrance to the Archives building is adjacent to the Vatican Library off the Piazza of St. Peter’s. The archives contain as well the state papers, correspondence, papal account books, and many other documents which the church has accumulated over the centuries.

The Jiangsu National Security Education Museum (China)

The Jiangsu National Security Education Museum in China is home to top secret documents about the history of Chinese espionage. People are allowed to enter, but they have to be Chinese nationals due to the fact that they don’t want such sensitive spy information to be exposed to foreigners.

Pine Gap: Prohibited Area in Australia

Pine Gap is the commonly used name for a satellite tracking station approximately 18 kilometers southwest of the town of Alice Springs in the center of Australia which is operated by both Australia and the United States. The location is strategically important because it controls America’s spy satellites as they pass over the third of the globe which includes China, parts of Russia, and Middle East oil fields.

The Negev Nuclear Research Center in Israel

The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, about thirteen kilometers southeast of the city of Dimona, Israel. The airspace over it is closed to all aircraft. They also implement the necessary measures to prevent unauthorized entry, so the area around it is heavily guarded and fenced off. Information about the facility remains extremely classified. But in 1986, Mordechai Vanunu, a former technician at Dimona, fled to the United Kingdom and revealed to the media some proof of Israel’s nuclear program and explained the function of each building, also revealing a top-secret underground facility straight below the installation.

World Arms Trade As you can see, India is the world’s top arms buyer, importing nearly three times as many weapons as its nearest competitors China and Pakistan. The US is the largest arms exporter.

World Arms Trade
As you can see, India is the world’s top arms buyer, importing nearly three times as many weapons as its nearest competitors China and Pakistan. The US is the largest arms exporter.